Political developments in Egypt and its impact on the internal situation and external (1952-1961)
CONTEMPORARY ISLAMIC STUDIENS MAGAZINE,
Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 1-34
AbstractArab region has witnessed many of the internal political events, which left a significant impact on their relationship with other countries. As well as results on the domestic situation, and Egypt had a share of political events, as it was for the period between 1952 - 1961 many of the political changes that had occupied the Egyptian government because of the great results inside and outside Egypt.
And the importance of this period and its events were hot, we dealt with her studies despite the fact that some researchers have consumed part of it, especially with regard to political developments in Egypt but they did not Astaiwa lights on the external reactions to political events in this country.
This is because our choice of this period also that the beginning has seen a significant event, but which is the revolution of July 1952, which changed the course of political decisions in Egypt, as well as a shift in their relationship with the outside world, either end of the period of time to search (1961), we can say that it did not meet the ambition of the Egyptian government , which called for the need to achieve Arab unity, was the separation of unity with Syria explicit reference the difficulty of achieving this goal.
Research has included four topics, and a conclusion, take First research the political developments in Egypt 1952 - 1954, which is an important era in the history of Egypt, and saw the researcher need to give the boot a summary of the most prominent events that preceded the Revolution, and was a fire Cairo an important event gave Ptavath the Egyptian people, who accused Royal Government of failing to maintain internal security, which drove her to dismiss the prime minister Mustafa Nahas, on the same day of the fire, and did not see the political situation stable after this incident and spread a state of chaos because of loss of control over internal security. The Egyptian revolution, an end to the chaos as the leaders took the deterioration of this situation, and felt the importance to get rid of the monarchy. Indeed, he has succeeded revolution and revolutionaries forced the king to abdicate and leave Egypt.
A year after the revolution was issued a constitution in 1953 which included a number of items from most important to get rid of the monarchy and bringing about changes in the political, economic and social, including the achievement of equality and justice among the people of Egypt, and held the leaders of the revolution during this year's negotiations with the Sudanese side of the in order to determine the political future of Sudan and those negotiations resulted in signing of the self-government with the opportunity to Sudanese-running for a period of three years to decide their future in unity or separation from Egypt.
And the back of a dispute between the leaders of the Revolution and Major General Mohammed Naguib on the authorities that should be enjoyed by the President of the Republic, which ended with the resignation of Najib in the February 23, 1954, after the rejection of Mtalibh relating to grant him special powers, and left the resignation of public response, both internally and externally, due to the popularity of which was Najib has the inside and outside Egypt as well as media campaigns supporting him returned to power after four days of his resignation. But the problem came back again after accusing Najib of trying to assassinate Gamal Abdel Nasser, and announced on the track of the Revolutionary Command Council for his dismissal in November 14, 1954. Abdel Nasser and then took over the presidency formally in a timely manner.
And studied the third research policy of the Egyptian government for the period between 1955 - 1957, as it emerged during this period a number of political developments was most serious by the Baghdad Pact in 1955, also saw this year also the Bandung Conference, as announced Nasser for his commitment to a policy of positive neutrality and impartiality, Given the Egyptian orientation towards building better relations with all countries. Particularly those in the Eastern bloc and the Soviet Union, which ended convene arms deal with Jioklovakia, prompting this matter the United States and Britain to withdraw financing the High Dam project, it was reported Abdel Nasser on this position to issue a decision nationalization of the Suez Canal on July 26, 1956, and the result of this decision the tripartite aggression to Egypt in the October 26, 1956, and carried out by Britain, France and Israel.
United States tried to pursue a policy of aggression, after filling the vacuum in the Middle East, Eisenhower project to issue arose in 1957, to reduce the Communist threat in the region, as well as America's attempt to keep Egypt from its Arab.
The fourth section dealt with Egypt's internal policy and its impacts on the external position 1958 - 1961, having witnessed this period a number of events including the problem of Halaib with Sudan in 1958, which ended by making them within the electoral district in the Sudanese Parliament.
The event is more important is the unity between Egypt and Syria and the formation of the so-called United Arab Republic, which sparked a political debate in Egypt between supporters of the Communists and their opponents. The role of Western nations to reject approaches unity, which wanted Abdel Nasser, as well as the attitude of some Arab states, who was opposed to the trends of Egypt unity.
And in 1961 saw the separation of the unity between Egypt and Syria because of the emergence of political differences between the two sides, as well as lack of conviction of some parties in both countries Iqiamha from the beginning, which led to its failure.
Search has been adopted on many Arab and foreign sources, as well as Alatarih, theses and published research in journals and contributed to by all in enriching Find important information for the study period.
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